CMS Interim Rule on Testing Guidelines for Nursing Homes
On Aug. 26, 2020, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) issued memorandum QSO-20-38-NH outlining requirements for the testing of residents and staff in nursing homes. Specifically, facilities are required to test residents and staff, including individuals providing services under arrangement and volunteers, for COVID-19 based on parameters set forth by the Health and Human Services (HHS) Secretary. In addition, CMS has revised the COVID-19 Focused Survey Tool to include the new testing requirements, the requirement that nursing homes designate an Infection Control Preventionist, and the requirement that the Infection Control Preventionist participate in the Quality Assurance Committee and provide reports to that committee on a regular basis. The CMS guidance is extensive, with some of the key provisions highlighted below:
Facilities can meet the testing requirements through the use of rapid point-of-care (POC) diagnostic testing devices or through an arrangement with an offsite laboratory. POC Testing is diagnostic testing that is performed at or near the site of resident care. For a facility to conduct these tests with their own staff and equipment (including POC devices provided by the Department of Health and Human Services), the facility must have a CLIA Certificate of Waiver. Information on obtaining a CLIA Certificate of Waiver can be found here.
Facilities without the ability to conduct COVID-19 POC testing should have arrangements with a laboratory to conduct tests to meet these requirements. Laboratories that can quickly process large numbers of tests with rapid reporting of results (e.g., within 48 hours) should be selected to rapidly inform infection prevention initiatives to prevent and limit transmission.
Regardless of the frequency of testing being performed or the facility’s COVID-19 status, the facility should continue to screen all staff (each shift), each resident (daily), and all persons entering the facility, such as vendors, volunteers, and visitors, for signs and symptoms of COVID-19.
Residents who have signs or symptoms of COVID-19 must be tested. While test results are pending, residents with signs or symptoms should be placed on transmission-based precautions (TBP) in accordance with CDC guidance. Once test results are obtained, the facility must take the appropriate actions based on the results.
Upon identification of a single new case of COVID-19 infection in any staff or residents, all staff and residents should be tested, and all staff and residents that tested negative should be retested every 3 days to 7 days until testing identifies no new cases of COVID-19 infection among staff or residents for a period of at least 14 days since the most recent positive result.
Routine testing should be based on the extent of the virus in the community, therefore facilities should use their county positivity rate in the prior week as the trigger for staff testing frequency. Reports of COVID-19 county-level positivity rates will be available on the following website by August 28, 2020 (see section titled, “COVID-19 Testing”): https://data.cms.gov/stories/s/COVID-19-Nursing-Home-Data/bkwz-xpvg
Routine testing of asymptomatic residents is not recommended unless prompted by a change in circumstances, such as the identification of a confirmed COVID-19 case in the facility. Facilities may consider testing asymptomatic residents who leave the facility frequently, such as for dialysis or chemotherapy. Facilities should inform resident transportation services (such as non-emergency medical transportation) and receiving healthcare providers (such as hospitals) regarding a resident’s COVID-19 status to ensure appropriate infection control precautions are followed.
Facilities must have procedures in place to address staff who refuse testing. Procedures should ensure that staff who have signs or symptoms of COVID-19 and refuse testing are prohibited from entering the building until the return to work criteria are met. If outbreak testing has been triggered and a staff member refuses testing, the staff member should be restricted from the building until the procedures for outbreak testing have been completed. The facility should follow its occupational health and local jurisdiction policies with respect to any asymptomatic staff who refuse routine testing.
Residents (or resident representatives) may exercise their right to decline COVID-19 testing in accordance with the requirements under 42 CFR § 483.10(c)(6). In discussing testing with residents, staff should use person-centered approaches when explaining the importance of testing for COVID-19. Facilities must have procedures in place to address residents who refuse testing. Procedures should ensure that residents who have signs or symptoms of COVID-19 and refuse testing are placed on TBP until the criteria for discontinuing TBP have been met. If outbreak testing has been triggered and an asymptomatic resident refuses testing, the facility should be extremely vigilant, such as through additional monitoring, to ensure the resident maintains appropriate distance from other residents, wears a face covering, and practices effective hand hygiene until the procedures for outbreak testing have been completed.
The guidance also addresses testing considerations, including the conducting, reporting, and documentation of testing and how survey staff will determine compliance with the testing requirements.
Contact: Elliott Frost, firstname.lastname@example.org, 518-441-8761